Saturday, 10 February 2018

A SOCIO-ECONOMIC HISTORY OF NORTH SHÄWA, ETHIOPIA (1880s - 1935)


A SOCIO-ECONOMIC HISTORY OF NORTH SHÄWA, ETHIOPIA (1880s - 1935), a 2015 PhD thesis by Dechasa Abebe, UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AFRICA

http://uir.unisa.ac.za/bitstream/handle/10500/19891/thesis_demisie_da.pdf?sequence=1

The Journal of Oromo Studies VOLUME 6, Nos. 1 & 2, 1999

The Journal of Oromo Studies VOLUME 6, NUMBERS 1 & 2, JULY 1999

https://zelalemkibret.files.wordpress.com/2013/07/jos-volume-6-numbers-12-1999.pdf

ITALY THROUGH THE LOOKING GLASS: ASPECTS OF BRITISH POLlCY AND INTELLIGENCE CONCERNING ITALY, 1939-1 941


ITALY THROUGH THE LOOKING GLASS: ASPECTS OF BRITISH POLlCY AND INTELLIGENCE CONCERNING ITALY, 1939-1 941, a 1997 PhD thesis by Dawn Marie Miller

This thesis examines British policy and intelligence concerning Italy between 1939 and 1941, paying particular attention to British images of Italy. In this period, British policy ran the gamut from appeasement to a pre-emptive strike, each corresponding to the prevailing image of Italy. This image was determined by the combination of net assessments, British fondness for the indirect approach and intelligence whose inability to ascertain Italian intentions gave expectations disproportionate influence over assessments. Chief among these expectations was the belief that Italian policy would further British plans to satisfy its strategic needs. After Italy joined the war on 10 June 1940, intelligence's inability to penetrate Mussolini's mind was less critical. Italy's declaration of war shattered the illusion that its policy would be compatible with Britain's strategic needs while breakthroughs in signals intelligence improved operational intelligence. In East Africa, this resulted in a policy of "raising the tribes", a plan to defeat Italy by supporting an indigenous rebellion in the Italian territories. British success in Abyssinia in May 1941 was a turning point in Anglo-Italian relations because it marked the end of Italy's ability to fight a parallel war. This thesis examines the interplay of image, intelligence and policy in Britain's relations with Italy between 1939 and 1941 in order to increase understanding of the nature and results of British policy for Italy in this period.

http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/obj/s4/f2/dsk2/ftp02/NQ28018.pdf

Discussing ethnohistory: The Blin between periphery and international politics in the 19th century


Discussing ethnohistory: The Blin between periphery and international politics in the 19th century, a 2006 article by Wolbert Smidt 

http://journals.openedition.org/cy/1373

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Thanks to Mauro Ghermendi for sharing the link

History, Historical Arguments and the Ethio-Eritrean conflict: between xenophobic approaches and an ideology of unity


History, Historical Arguments and the Ethio-Eritrean conflict: between xenophobic approaches  and an ideology of unity, an 2012 article by Wolbert Smidt


http://www.mediafire.com/file/41kss6vz27gr0sb/History_historical_arguments_and_the_Eth+%281%29.pdf

Source: https://www.academia.edu/21221634/History_historical_arguments_and_the_Ethio-Eritrean_conflict_between_xenophobic_approaches_and_an_ideology_of_unity?auto=download

Thanks to Mauro Ghermandi for sharing the link

For the Motherland (ለእናት ሀገር): Traditional Music Performance and Nationalism in Addis Ababa, 2016


For the Motherland (ለእናት ሀገር): Traditional Music Performance and Nationalism in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, a 2016 M.A. Thesis by Sara Bishop, Florida State University

This thesis examines staged performances of traditional music in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia. It includes the history of traditional performing groups in Ethiopia and their purposes, the continuities and changes in performance practices from the early twentieth century to the present day, and audience perceptions of these performances. Particular attention is given to the relationships between traditional musics and Ethiopian nationalism. In response to the rise of ethno-nationalism in the latter part of the twentieth century, the new government regime that came to power in 1994 employed ethnicity as an organizing principle of the state. 

It can be downloaded at:

https://fsu.digital.flvc.org/islandora/object/fsu%3A360323

Tuesday, 6 February 2018

The Struggling State: Nationalism, Mass Militarization, and the Education of Eritrea


The  Struggling State: Nationalism, Mass Militarization,  and the Education of Eritrea , a book by Jennifer Riggan, 2016



Can be dowloaded here:

http://www.oapen.org/search?identifier=605457

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"A state like Eritrea that prohibits citizens from leaving, engages in mass round-ups, detains arbitrarily, permanently conscripts a large swathe of its population into the military, and utilizes schools as a conduit for military conscription might seem like a “strong” state in the sense that it has the capacity to implement policies and enact sovereignty over its people. Such a state might not seem to be “struggling,” yet I argue that states in Eritrea and elsewhere struggle in a variety of ways. States struggle to legitimately enact their own nation-building projects. Authoritarianism and state coercion, in particular, reveal weaknesses in the hyphen between nation and state, weaknesses that are present in all states, even those that we might not label as authoritarian or coercive. The case of Eritrea highlights these state struggles in several ways. "


 "In short, the Eritrean state struggled to be legitimate, to produce loyal national subjects, to reproduce and reify itself, and to achieve institutional coherence. These struggles are certainly not unique to Eritrea; indeed, all states struggle to produce these effects. But the conditions in Eritrea produced by mass militarization, the party’s orthodox adherence to its revolutionary nationalist agenda, and the government’s increased reliance on coercion amplify these struggles and expose the paradoxes of state legitimacy and control."
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Thanks to Jonathan Miran for sharing the link

Agordat, Eritrea one of the most extensive pre-historic materials in the Horn of Africa



New perspectives on the Agordat material, Eritrea: A re-examination of the archaeological material in the National Museum, Khartoum








Agordat in Eritrea has provided one of the most extensive pre-historic materials in the Horn of Africa. The materials were collected and presented to the Sudan National Museum by A. J. Arkell and Major J. S. Last, the political governor of Eritrea in 1942

في أغوردات في إريتريا تم العثورعلى واحدة اقدم اثار ومواد ما قبل التاريخ في القرن الافريقى تم جمع المواد وعرضها في المتحف القومي السوداني من قبل أركيل و ماجور الذي كان آخر حاكم السياسي لإريتريا في عام 1942. معظم من المواد المستخرجة من سطح الموقع من أربع مناطق مختلفة في ضواحي أغوردات: جبل كوكان، نتاني، شابيت، وداندانيت. وقد وجدت اكثر المواد في كوكان  وتشمل القطع الأثرية ، شظايا هيكل عظمي الإنسان والأسنان، وادوات اثرية صورها ملحقة، آركل (1954) يرى أن الاكتشافات موحدة تماما ويعتبر انهم ينتمون إلى ثقافة واحدة. التحليل الجديد من المواد يدل على أن المواد هي متنوعة جدا ومع ذلك، يظهر الاتصال الرئيسي، كما اقترح أركيل، أن تكون ذات صلة بثقافات وادي النيل ويرجع تاريخها إلى حوالي الألفية الرابعة

The article can be downloaded at:

http://www.mediafire.com/file/vdmsa5nezly49to/Agordat+material+2007.pdf

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Thanks to Mahmoud Lobinet for the links
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Another related article:

From the sea to the deserts and back: New research in Eastern Sudan and Eritrean lowlands

https://unora.unior.it/retrieve/handle/11574/40503/30413/Manzo_BMSEAS_18_2012_light.pdf

To sum up, all of these elements may point to intense contact between the Eritrean-Sudanese lowlands and Upper Nubia and suggest that, as expected, the south-easternmost region of the Kerma cultural area, i.e., the Fourth Cataract region, played an important part in this interaction. These remarks also suggest that the Eritrean-Sudanese lowlands had contact with the Red Sea coast and the Eastern Desert and may have had direct contact with Lower Nubia via the Eastern Desert, Arabia and perhaps Egypt via  the Red Sea. It should be stressed that the processes of interaction between Nubia and Eastern Sudan led not only to the exchange of goods but also to the local production in Eastern Sudan of recorded in Gash Group and Jebel Mokram Group assemblages, described.

UNESCO: Preservation and Presentation of the Cultural Heritage in Eritrea


UNESCO Report: Preservation and Presentation of the Cultural Heritage in Eritrea , 1994

http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0009/000986/098638eo.pdf

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Thanks to Mahmoud Lobinet for sharing the link

Saturday, 3 February 2018

The Indigenous population of Eritrea by Alberto Pollera, in Italian, 1935



The Indigenous population of Eritrea by Alberto Pollera, in Italian, 1935:

Le Popolazioni Indigene Dell' Eritrea



http://www.mediafire.com/file/fdl5oqwpxso39k9/Indigenous+population+Eritrea+Pollera.pdf

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Source: http://www.centrocabral.com/1226/



Thanks to Mauro Ghermandi for making aware of the website

Thursday, 1 February 2018

I BARIA E I Cunama by Alberto Pollera 1913, a 351 page original monograph, in Italian

       الكتاب الاصلي عن الباريا والكوناما التي كتبها ألبرتو بوليرا عام ١٩١٣، وهي دراسة من ٣٥١  صفحة، باللغة الإيطالية   مع 
١٥٨ رسوم توضيحية و ٥٠ جداول، رسم تخطيطي وخريطة

                                         
I BARIA E I Cunama by Alberto Pollera 1913, a 351 page original monograph, in Italian on the Baria (Nara) and Kunama with 158 illustrations and with 50 Tables, a diagram and a map
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http://www.mediafire.com/file/3blvbu7cvpc56j2/Baria+e+i+cunama.pdf

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Source: http://www.centrocabral.com/1226/

Thanks to Mauro Ghermandi for making aware of the website

Old Maps of the Horn of Africa region from 1821

Old Maps of the region from 1821




https://digital.library.illinois.edu/search?utf8=%E2%9C%93&q=Eritrea

Bollettino della societa geografica italiana 1869

Bollettino della societa geografica italiana 1869









https://ia801408.us.archive.org/24/items/bollettinodella39italgoog/bollettinodella39italgoog.pdf

Friday, 26 January 2018

A collection of articles on the Oromo

A collection of articles on the Oromo

Sociocultural Origins of the Oromo National Movement in Ethiopia:


http://trace.tennessee.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1085&context=utk_socopubs

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Conquest, Tyranny, and Ethnocide against the Oromo: A Historical Assessment of Human Rights Conditions in Ethiopia, ca. 1880s–2002

http://www.osgaustralia.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/Conquest-Tyranny-in-Ethiopia-By-Dr.-Mohammed-Hassan.pdf
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The Struggle For Knowledge: The Case of Emergent Oromo Studies , a1996 article by Asafa Jalata

"Taking the Oromo as historical actors, the emergent Oromo studies identify some deficiencies of "Ethiopian studies" that primarily focus on the Amhara and Tigray ethnic groups and their rulers, and ignore the history of the Oromo people....."

The article can be assessed here:

http://trace.tennessee.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1093&context=utk_socopubs
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Islam, the orthodox Church and Oromo nationalism (Ethiopia):

http://journals.openedition.org/etudesafricaines/137

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Haile Selassie and American Missionaries: Inadvertent Agents of Oromo Identity in Ethiopia:

https://repository.lib.ncsu.edu/bitstream/handle/1840.16/844/etd.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Saturday, 20 January 2018

Muslim Egypt and Christian Abyssinia 1880


Moslem Egypt and Christian Abyssinia; Or, Military Service Under the Khedive, in his Provinces and Beyond their Borders, as Experienced by the American Staff


Description

William McEntyre Dye (1831–99) was a graduate of the United States Military Academy, a former colonel in the United States Army, and a veteran of the American Civil War. In late 1873, Dye entered the service of Ismail Pasha, the khedive of Egypt and Sudan, who was recruiting, with the assistance of General William T. Sherman, American officers to serve as advisors in his army. Egypt was at that time formally still part of the Ottoman Empire, but it exercised a high degree of autonomy. Dye served as assistant chief of staff in the Egyptian expedition against Abyssinia  (Ethiopia), which Ismail Pasha launched in 1875 to conquer territory on the Red Sea coast. This book, published after Dye’s return to the United States, contains an extensive, first-hand account of  the Abyssinian  campaign. Despite the involvement of the foreign officers, Ismail Pasha’s army suffered serious defeats in November 1875 and March 1876, which Dye described and analyzed. The book is also noteworthy for its accounts of expeditions undertaken for the khedive to Kordostan in central Sudan and Darfur in western Sudan. The appendix contains an annotated list of 25 American officers (veterans of both the Union and Confederate armies and navies) connected to military service in Egypt between 1869 and 1878.

Muslim Egypt and Christian Abyssinia:


Sunday, 14 January 2018

Handbooks on Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, Djibouti prepared by the British Foreign Office 1920

In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. In a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference.

Eritrea:

Eritrea is Number 126 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The book covers physical and political geography, political history, social and political conditions, and economic conditions. At the time the study was written, Eritrea was an Italian colony. With the encouragement of the Italian government, the Rubattino Shipping Company began acquiring territories from local sultans on the shores of the Red Sea as early as 1869, and in 1890 Italy consolidated its possessions on the Red Sea under the name Eritrea. The historical section traces the late-19th century struggle for influence and control in the region involving, at different times, Egypt, Turkey, Britain, and Abyssinia (Ethiopia). The economic section discusses prospects for development of the colony itself, chiefly as a location for Italian-owned plantations worked by indigenous labor, and its importance as an outlet to the sea for Abyssinia. Eritrea remained an Italian colony until World War II, when it was occupied by the British. In December 1952 it was federated with Ethiopia. After a long war of independence, it gained international recognition as an independent country on May 24, 1993.

https://dl.wdl.org/11917/service/11917.pdf
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Abyssinia:

Abyssinia is Number 129 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The book includes sections on physical and political geography, political history, social and political conditions, and economic conditions. It summarizes the history of Abyssinia  (now known as Ethiopia) from its origins in Biblical times, through early contacts with Europeans in the 18th century, to the reign of Emperor Menelik II (1889−1913) and his victory over Italy in the war of 1895−96. The study notes that one of the principal results of the 1896 treaty of peace with Italy was “the recognition without reserve of the absolute independence of the Ethiopian Empire as a sovereign and independent state.” The book discusses the Ethiopian Church and its relationship to the Coptic Church of Egypt, as well as the Muslim, Jewish, and animist minorities living in the country. The economic section emphasizes the low level of agricultural and industrial productivity and the feudal system of land tenure. Foreign trade was beginning to grow, with the main exports being coffee beans and cattle hides.



British Somaliland:

British Somaliland (the northwest part of present-day Somalia) was a British protectorate, established in 1884−7, after a period of rivalry between Britain and Egypt (then nominally still part of the Ottoman Empire) for control of the territory on the African side of the Gulf of Aden. Sokotra (part of present-day Yemen) is an island in the Indian Ocean lying south of the Arabian Peninsula, which became a British protectorate in 1886. Both British Somaliland and Sokotra were regarded as strategically important for controlling the ocean trade routes from the Suez Canal to India, Australia, and the Far East. The book includes sections on physical and political geography, political history, social and political conditions, and economic conditions. The section on political history summarizes the parts played by Great Britain, France, and Italy in this region of Africa and recounts the recurring difficulties the British and Italians had in subjugating the local religious leader and Somali nationalist Sayid Mohammed Abdullah Hassan, a man the British called "the Mad Mullah," who preached holy war against the colonial powers and the neighboring Abyssinians (Ethiopians). The economic section notes the underdeveloped state of both protectorates, observing, for example, that there “are no roads in British Somaliland in the European sense of the word.”

https://dl.wdl.org/11787/service/11787.pdf
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Italian Somaliland:

Italian Somaliland is Number 128 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Italian Somaliland (part of the present-day Republic of Somalia) came under Italian control in early 1889, when the sultan of Obbia (present-day Hobyo) concluded a treaty with Italy placing his dominions along the coast of the Indian Ocean under Italian protection. Southern Somaliland was made an Italian crown colony in 1910, while Northern Somaliland remained an Italian protectorate, “ruled by local Sultans, over whose actions the Italian Government exercises only indirect political control.” The book includes sections on physical and political geography, political history, social and political conditions, and economic conditions. It chronicles the establishment of Italian control and the demarcation of boundaries between Italian Somaliland and British East Africa and Abyssinia (Ethiopia). The section on social and political conditions is brief and stresses the strict Islamic faith of the Somali tribes. The study discusses the commitment of the Italians to turning Italian Somaliland into an economically profitable colony but notes the many obstacles to be overcome, including the dry climate and shortages of water, the lack of qualified labor for agricultural work, and the rudimentary transport network. It notes the prevalence of slavery in the southern part of the colony.

https://dl.wdl.org/11876/service/11876.pdf

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French Somaliland:

French Somaliland is Number 109 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. British Somaliland and Sokotra is Number 97 in the series; Italian Somaliland is Number 128. French Somaliland (present-day Djibouti) is located on the eastern coast of Africa, bordered at that time by the Italian colony of Eritrea, Abyssinia (present-day Ethiopia), and British Somaliland (part of present-day Somalia). The book contains sections on physical and political geography, political history, social and political conditions, and economic conditions. Included is a brief discussion of the population of the colony, which was comprised of two main groups, the Danakil (also known as the Afar), and the Issa Somalis. The section on political history summarizes the process by which France came to control the territory, beginning with the cession of the port of Obok by local chiefs in 1856 and ending with the conclusion of treaties of protection with the sultans of Tajura and Gobad and the chiefs of the Issa Somalis in 1884–85. The study notes that the economic value of French Somaliland derived almost entirely from its position as a transportation hub. It was the terminus of the railroad from the port of Djibouti to Ethiopia and a “convenient coaling station and port of call for vessels trading with the East, particularly with the French Asiatic possessions, and with Eastern Africa and Madagascar.” French Somaliland was renamed the Territory of the Afars and the Issas in 1967 and became independent as the Republic of Djibouti in 1977.

https://dl.wdl.org/11884/service/11884.pdf